Self-Employment Activities of Women and Minorities
While technical or scientific fields were not among the top fields of study for women, visible minority women were more likely to have studied in them. Chart 8 Visible minority women with postsecondary education in various fields of study, Canada, Women in the four largest visible minority groups were most likely to have studied business, management and public administration or fields related to health, parks, recreation and fitness.
Table 9 Top five major fields of study of the four largest visible minority women groups aged 15 years and over with postsecondary education, Canada, The educational profile of visible minority women differed from that of their male counterparts. A higher proportion of visible minority men than women studied in scientific and technical areas.
A relatively high proportion of young visible minority women attended school. Korean and Chinese women were the most likely to go to school among all the visible minority groups. Chart 9 Women aged 15 to 24 attending school part-time or full-time, by visible minority group, Canada, In general, visible minority women had a slightly lower employment rate than non-visible minority women.
On Census day in , The But it was almost 10 percentage points lower than for their non-visible minority counterparts While for non-immigrant women, the employement rate was slightly higher for visible minority women The employment rates for women and men followed the same pattern in both the visible minority and non-visible minority groups: women were less likely to be employed than men.
The employment gap between visible minority women When immigrant status was taken into account, Canadian-born visible minority women were more likely to be employed than their immigrant counterparts. Canadian-born visible minority women of core working age had an employment rate of This rate is Among Canadian-born women with a university education in , visible minority women had a slightly lower employment rate Table 10 Employment rate of visible and non-visible minority populations, by immigrant status, Canada, Among all the visible minority groups, Filipinas were the most likely to be employed.
Also, Filipinas aged 25 to 54 were more likely to be employed Arab, Korean and West Asian women had the lowest employment rates among the visible minority groups. In , the employment gap between Arab women and non-visible minority women of core working age was For Korean women, the difference with non-visible minority women was Chart 10 Employment rate of women aged 25 to 54, by visible minority group, Canada, Visible minority women were generally more susceptible to unemployment.
In the week prior to the Census, 8.
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Furthermore, the unemployment rate of visible minority women 8. In fact, there was a bigger gender gap in unemployment between visible minority women and men, 2. Young visible minority women, like their non-visible minority counterparts, were more likely to be unemployed than those in older age categories. In , However, young visible minority women had a slightly lower unemployment rate than young visible minority men, whose rate was Unemployment rates also varied from one visible minority group to another. In , Arab Filipinas had the lowest unemployment rate 4.
Chart 11 Unemployment rate of women aged 25 to 54, by visible minority group, Canada, Women in Canada who were in the workforce in were more likely than men to work on a part-time or part-year basis, regardless of their visible minority status. Younger and older workers were generally more likely to work part-time or part-year than workers of core-working age.
This was also the case for visible minority women. Table 11 Visible minority and non-visible minority working part-time or part-year, by age group, Canada, For the most part, the occupational profile of visible minority women was similar to that of non-visible minority women. Women in both of these groups tended to be employed in jobs that were traditionally occupied by the female population. In the distribution of occupational groups, gender trumped visible minority status as a significant factor. Their share of employment was higher than that of non-visible minority women of the same age group in the following occupational categories: processing and manufacturing; natural and applied sciences; sales and services; and trades, transportation and equipment operation.
However, visible minority women were less likely than their non-visible minority counterparts to be employed in jobs related to social science, education, government service and religion; art, culture, recreation and sport; management; and business, finance and administration.
Table 12 Visible minority and non-visible minority aged 25 to 54, by occupational group, Canada, Women in the top four largest visible minority groups were most likely to be employed in business, finance and administration or in sales and services. Table 13 Top five occupational groups of the four largest visible minority women groups aged 15 years and over, Canada, Visible minority women generally earned less than non-visible minority women. Data not shown. Employment income was higher among full-time, full-year workers. Table 14 Median employment income for visible minority women aged 25 to 54 years who worked full time, full year, by generation, Canada, An earnings gap also existed between the sexes.
Visible minority women were more likely to be in a low income situation than non-visible minority women. Government transfers helped reduce the number of individuals in low-income situations and were reflected in low-income rates calculated after tax. Table 15 Low-income for women in economic families, by visible minority and immigrant status, Canada, While an earnings disparity existed between all visible minority women and all their non-visible minority counterparts, it disappeared when considering only women born in Canada.
This gap existed mainly among first-generation visible minority women. Labour market outcomes improved among second-generation visible minority women of core working age. The earnings outcomes of the second-generation visible minority women, like their employment rates were the result of their high educational attainment. They generally had to deal with more challenges in the labour market, especially among those who were recent immigrants to Canada 3 as their foreign work experience and credentials may not have been directly transferable to the Canadian economy.
As a whole, second-generation visible minority women had more positive labour market outcomes than their immigrant parents or grandparents. According to the General Social Survey GSS , visible minorities, regardless of gender, more often reported experiencing discrimination or unfair treatment than non-visible minorities.
One-quarter of both visible minority sexes in Canada reported discrimination or unfair treatment during the five years preceding the survey in The most common reasons given as the basis of the experience of discrimination or unfair treatment were "ethnicity or culture" and "race or colour". Table 16 Canadians aged 15 and over who reported experiencing discrimination or unfair treatment in Canada in last five years, to Although the percentages varied by gender and visible minority status, the three most common situations of discrimination or unfair treatment for all the GSS respondents were in the workplace or when applying for a job or promotion; in a store, bank or restaurant; and on the street Table Table 17 Canadians aged 15 and over who reported experiencing discrimination or unfair treatment in Canada in last five years, by type of situation, to The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as 'persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.
For details on each of the groups that make up the visible minority population, see the Visible Minority Population and Population Group Reference Guide, Census. Catalogue no. Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant. A landed immigrant or permanent resident is a person who has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities.
Immigrants are either Canadian citizens by naturalization the citizenship process or permanent residents landed immigrants under Canadian legislation. Although a small number of immigrants are born in Canada, most immigrants are born outside Canada. Therefore, in this study, the term "born in Canada" is occasionally used to describe non-immigrants, in order to clarify the text. Recent immigrants also known as newcomers are landed immigrants who came to Canada up to five years prior to a given census year.
Similarly, recent immigrants in the Census were newcomers at the time of the Census, i.
Non-permanent residents are people from another country who had a Work or Study Permit, or who were refugee claimants at the time of the census, and family members living in Canada with them. Permanent residents are persons who have not become Canadian citizens, but have been authorized to live and work in Canada indefinitely, provided that they meet residency requirements and do not lose their status by reason of serious criminality, security, human rights violations, organized crime or misrepresentation. Temporary residents are foreign workers, international students and visitors who gain temporary entry by the Department of Citizenship and Immigration Canada.
Note: The concepts of permanent residents and temporary residents are used when analysing administrative data from the Department of Citizenship and Immigration Canada. These are different from the concepts of immigrants and non-permanent residents used in the Canadian census. Generation status indicates for how many generations a person and their family have been in Canada. It is derived from place of birth of respondent, place of birth of father and place of birth of mother and it pertains only to the population aged 15 and older.
A person is defined as either 'first generation,' 'second generation' or 'third generation or more,' as follows:. Census metropolitan area is an area consisting of one or more neighbouring municipalities situated around a major urban core. A census metropolitan area must have a total population of at least , of which 50, or more live in the urban core. Attendance at school refers to the attendance and the type of school attended during the nine-month period between September and May 16, An individual's attendance could be either full time or part time day or evening , even if the individual dropped out after registration.
Attendance was counted only for courses which could be used as credits towards a certificate, diploma or degree from a recognized educational institution elementary or secondary school, registered apprenticeship programs, trade schools, colleges, CEGEP s and universities. Major field of study refers to the predominant discipline or area of learning or training of a person's highest postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree. For more information on the classification of the fields, refer to Census Dictionary , Catalogue no.
Occupation refers to the kind of work persons were doing during the reference week, as determined by their kind of work and the description of the main activities in their job. Persons with two or more jobs were to report the information for the job at which they worked the most hours. For more information on the classification of the occupational group, refer to Census Dictionary ,Catalogue no. Employment rate is the number of people for a particular group age, sex, marital status, geographical area, etc. Unemployment rate is the unemployed people in a particular group age, sex, marital status, geographical area, etc.
Low-income cut-offs LICOs are income thresholds, determined by analysing family expenditure data, below which families will devote a larger share of income to the necessities of food, shelter and clothing than the average family would.
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